International Journal of Integrated Engineering <p align="justify">The International Journal of Integrated Engineering (IJIE) is a single blind peer reviewed journal which publishes 3 times a year since 2009 (April, August and December). The journal is dedicated to various issues focusing on 3 different fields which are:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Civil and Environmental Engineering. Original contributions for civil and environmental engineering related practices will be publishing under this category and as the nucleus of the journal contents. The journal publishes a wide range of research and application papers which describe laboratory and numerical investigations or report on full scale projects.</li> <li class="show">Electrical and Electronic Engineering. It stands as a international medium for the publication of original papers concerned with the electrical and electronic engineering. The journal aims to present to the international community important results of work in this field, whether in the form of research, development, application or design.</li> <li class="show">Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering. It is a platform for the publication and dissemination of original work which contributes to the understanding of the main disciplines underpinning the mechanical, materials and manufacturing engineering. Original contributions giving insight into engineering practices related to mechanical, materials and manufacturing engineering form the core of the journal contents.</li> </ul> en-US <p><strong>Open access licenses</strong></p> <p>Open Access is by licensing the content with a&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons (CC) license</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> (IJIE Editor) (Penerbit UTHM) Tue, 28 Nov 2023 15:58:59 +0800 OJS 60 Chemical Stabilization of Amorphous Peat Using Cement and Fly Ash at Different Water Additive Ratios <p>Peat is a very problematic soil as it is poor in strength. However, previous researchers have proven that the compressive strength of peat can be improved by using various methods of soil improvement including chemical stabilization method. In this study, cement and fly ash and lime were additives used and were mixed with amorphous peat at various water additive ratios. To replicate actual stabilization on site, water additive ratio is proposed as to allow stabilization to be performed at natural water content of the peat. Peat samples were collected from Kampung Endap, Samarahan and mixed at its natural moisture content with cement and with fly ash and lime at different water additive ratios of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0. The compressive and bearing strengths of the samples were obtained by the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test respectively. The results of the study have shown that there is marginal strength gained after 28 and 56 days of air curing period. The peat samples stabilized with cement at 3.5 water additive ratio recorded the highest value with UCS value of 69.48 kPa after 56 days of curing and 0.52 % for CBR test after 28 days curing period. These strength values obtained are lower compared to published data from previous studies. Different technique of mixing in the laboratory that is mixing peat at its natural water content with varied amount of additives at selected water additive ratio as opposed to mixing at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content that is mostly performed in laboratory contributes to the outcome. However, this study has proven that there is an increase in compressive and bearing strengths of stabilized peat in its natural water content compared to original peat without stabilizer.</p> S. N. L. Taib, I. Afiqah, Indit Galvinov Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Integrated Engineering Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Evaluating The Effects of Signal Control Applications on Roundabout’s LOS Performance Using VISSIM Microsimulation Model <p>The existence of unbalanced and high traffic flows at roundabout have resulted in poor performance and safety concerns. Past research has shown that applications of signal control at problematic roundabouts had significantly improved its Level of Service (LOS) performance. This study investigates the effects of different signal phasing plans on the roundabout’s LOS performance using VISSIM microsimulation model. The findings revealed that both Approach-Signal-Control Roundabout ACSR and Two-Stop-Line Control Signalized Roundabout TSLSR signal phasing methods did not significantly improve the roundabout’s entry capacities. Partial signal control applications, however, have resulted in a significant reduction in vehicle delays and higher entry capacities. The results of this study provide a good overview to local traffic practitioners on how to evaluate and implement the signal control strategy at problematic roundabouts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kabit M. R., Chiew, W.Y., Chai A., Tirau L. S., Bujang Z. Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Integrated Engineering Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Correlation of Different Peat Soil Index Properties <p>The present study focuses on the physical properties of Sarawak peat soil and identifies the correlation between the index properties of peat from the present study and various locations in Malaysia. The physical properties of peat from the present study were obtained on site and in the laboratory, including degree of humification, moisture content, organic content, fibre content, specific gravity, liquid limit, linear shrinkage, and pH. The data obtained in this study and other tropical peats in Malaysia were compiled to identify their correlations. The correlation results reveal that with an increase in organic content, there is also an increase in value of moisture content, while the value of specific gravity reduces. Furthermore, as the bulk density of peat increases, the value of organic content reduces. Also, the moisture content, organic content, and fibre content of peat decrease with the increasing value of degree of humification. The correlations between different peat soil index properties have R<sup>2</sup> values ranging from 0.75 to 0.85, showing that the peat soil index properties are consistent with findings from previous studies, in which comparable trends are found. Thus, these correlations are expected to be useful for researchers and engineers to understand the peat soil's preliminary behaviour.</p> Nur Rasfina Mahyan, Siti Noor Linda Taib, Norazzlina M. Sa'don, Liyana Truna, Jennyfer Joys John Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Integrated Engineering Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Numerical Modelling of Slope Stability and Transient Seepage Analysis: Jalan Puncak Borneo Road Case Study <p>A slope failure event in 2015 at KM 6+500 of Jalan Puncak Borneo in Padawan, Kuching was modelled using Seep/w and Slope/w software of commercial geotechnical programme GEOSTUDIO. The failure was occurred after a prolonged three days of heavy rain. The state road which connected the villagers from Puncak Borneo was cut off and caused traffic congestion.&nbsp; In this study, the slope stability was evaluated based on finite element and limit equilibrium method by considering the transient seepage analysis due to rainfall infiltration.&nbsp; The slope failure was modelled based on ground investigation report and published data to replicate the field condition.&nbsp; A hyetograph was plotted using daily rainfall data and cumulative rainfall depth was determined to obtain the total rainfall during the wet monsoon. As a result of numerical analyses, the factor of safety was observed to fluctuate with time of infiltration. Based on this case study, the factor of safety or FOS reduced with time and a perched water table also has been observed developed just below the pavement.&nbsp; However, the factor of safety calculated from Slope/w could not replicate the actual failure.&nbsp; Nevertheless, it can be observed that factor of safety had decreased with respect to infiltration in the analyses.&nbsp; The steady state condition provided FOS 1.33 and had reduced to 1.27 after 110 days of rainfall event.&nbsp; Thus, the analyses of this current study have illustrated that the transient analysis is essential to model the seepage behaviour and infiltration event that caused slope failure along Sarawak’s roads.</p> D. S. Awang Ismail, S. N. L. Taib, N. M. Sa’don Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Integrated Engineering Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Evaluating the Weathering Effect on Granite, Limestone and Uncrushed River Stone Aggregates for Road Constructions <p>The lack of excellent aggregate materials has become a major issue in Sarawak. River stone, abundant in many places of Sarawak, can be used as an alternative aggregate material, minimising the reliance on high-quality aggregates like granite in the production of an affordable and sustainable road pavement. Weathering also deteriorates aggregate materials. This project aims to investigate the durability of granite, limestone, and uncrushed river stone aggregates with regards to weathering effects. The aggregates are subjected to two conditions, i.e., normal condition (without wetting and drying cycles) and wet-dry condition (with wetting and drying cycles). The physical properties of aggregates are determined by the Flakiness Index, Elongation Index, and Specific Gravity. Weathering effects on aggregates are determined using laboratory tests such as Aggregate Impact Value (AIV), Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV), and Los Angeles Abrasion (LAA). Weathering cycles have been found to have a minor impact on aggregates in the short term. Overall, the test results indicate that wetting and drying circumstances have a negligible effect on aggregates over a short period of time. The materials' physical attributes all meet JKR requirements. The Aggregate Impact Value (AIV), Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV), and Los Angeles Abrasion (LAA) values are nearly constant across the wet-dry state for all aggregate kinds. Despite the wet-dry situation, the AIV, ACV, and LAA tests demonstrate that specific aggregate materials retain their durability when compared to other aggregate materials. As a result, granite is the most durable aggregate in terms of AIV and LAA when compared to limestone and uncrushed river stone, while uncrushed river stone is more durable in terms of ACV when compared to granite and limestone.</p> Ron Aldrino Chan @ Ron Buking, Lwinsky Brina Anthony, Ervin Rangga Edwin, Larry Silas Tirau, Zamri Bujang, Wan Hashim Wan Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Integrated Engineering Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Environmental Performance of the Stormpav Permeable Pavement Using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) <p>Urban stormwater runoff is contaminated with a variety of pollutants, including total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP), as a result of non-source pollution from transportation, residences, and businesses, as well as sediment from human activities and construction sites. These pollutants are expected to degrade the water quality in local rivers and streams, impairing the quality of marine life and contaminating drinking water supplies. This study evaluates the environmental performance of a permeable pavement system in an urban catchment using the stormwater management model (SWMM). Two pavement systems with different hydraulic designs were compared to reduce runoff, increment of groundwater storage and the environmental parameters assessments on total suspended solids (TSS) and Total Phosphorus (TP). The first system comprises a StormPav, which is the UNIMAS innovated green pavement with subsurface hollow cylindrical micro-detention pond storage of about 70% void content. The second system consists of porous concrete (PC) pavement assembled in a layered of coarse and fine particles to ensure water can infiltrate through, with about 40% void content. The environmental impact assessment was applied at Padungan Commercial Centre in the Kuching City of Malaysia. The case study simulated&nbsp; low impact development (LID) sub-catchment in SWMM to obtain the runoff, infiltration and environmental quality performance. In the assessment, it was found that, for both pavement systems, higher storms at shorter duration resulted in higher reduction efficiency. The StormPav is more effective in reducing runoff while presenting a lower value for environmental assessments in removing TSS and TP compared to PC.</p> Norazlina Bateni, Lukman Mohd Najib, Khairisya Roslan, Mah Yau Seng, Inawati Othman, H. Maseri, M. D. Mannan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Integrated Engineering Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Structural Sustainable Recycled Aggregate Concrete Production Under Environmental Conditions <p>The use of recycled aggregates (RA) in the concrete industry has become increasingly popular due to the reduction in natural aggregate (NA) consumption and the ability to reuse demolition waste. This research focuses on analyzing the performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) cured with sodium sulfate (Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>). Five different mixtures were created, varying from 0% RA without supplementary cementitious material (SCM), to 0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% substitution of NA with RA and SCM. The slump test was performed on all fresh RAC mixtures, which showed a decrease in slump with an increase in RA content. Both 5% Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> solution curing at 91 days and standard curing at 7, 28, and 91 days resulted in a reduction in compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) as the proportion of RA increased. Compared to standard curing, the compressive strength of specimens cured with 5% Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> solution at 91 days showed a decrease of approximately 5-7%. The UPV of SCM-based mixes showed 14-28% improvement with respect to normal aggregate concrete (NAC) in normal water curing. Furthermore, the SCM-included specimens have produced less deterioration in Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> immersion as SCM particles resist the severity of the dominant sulfate environment.</p> Shuvo Dip Datta, Md. Habibur Rahman Sobuz, Norsuzailina Mohamed Sutan, Shoaib Islam Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Integrated Engineering Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Detention Properties of Subsurface Stormwater Modules Under Tropical Climate <p>Subsurface stormwater module is one of the components of a sustainable drainage system. However, the performance of subsurface stormwater module as on-site detention under tropical climate like Malaysia has not been extensively studied in the literature. The current study involves on-site installation of pilot scale subsurface stormwater modules exposed to tropical climate to simulate real conditions to evaluate the detention performance. Rainfall together with the changes in water level and volume of water detained in the installation were observed for six months between April 2021 to October 2021. The subsurface stormwater module used in the current study has a porosity of 94%. It was found that the subsurface stormwater module setup was able to detain between 35.2% to 95.6% of the rainfall volume generated from total rainfall between 11.1 mm to 56.8 mm. The findings can be used as design consideration for using subsurface stormwater module under tropical climate.</p> C. H. J. Bong, L. L. P. Lim, C. K. Ng, S. L. Chai Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Integrated Engineering Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Living Walls in The City: Community Values and Expectations <p>There is an increasing interest in living walls in the urban environment, particularly when linked into green infrastructure for urban heat island mitigation. However, the social acceptance of such systems in Australia is largely untested. To address this knowledge gap, a survey of nineteen local government authorities and twenty living wall owners and managers was conducted. The survey participants included commercial and residential buildings. The survey was used to study living wall owners’ motivations and expectations of living walls as well as the social values attached to the installed infrastructure. This study related the experiences of living wall owners to the current technical knowledge of living walls and contextualised the benefits and costs of living walls for Australian homes and buildings within the public attitudes and motivations for installing such infrastructure. The survey found that social acceptance and the aesthetic values placed on living walls and greenery more broadly represented a substantial advantage for living walls.</p> R. A. Bustami, R. Rawlings, S. Beecham, J. Ward, D. Y. S. Mah Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Integrated Engineering Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0800